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3.7.14 %code Summary

The %code directive inserts code verbatim into the output parser source at any of a predefined set of locations. It thus serves as a flexible and user-friendly alternative to the traditional Yacc prologue, %{code%}. This section summarizes the functionality of %code for the various target languages supported by Bison. For a detailed discussion of how to use %code in place of %{code%} for C/C++ and why it is advantageous to do so, see Prologue Alternatives.

Directive: %code {code}

This is the unqualified form of the %code directive. It inserts code verbatim at a language-dependent default location in the parser implementation.

For C/C++, the default location is the parser implementation file after the usual contents of the parser header file. Thus, the unqualified form replaces %{code%} for most purposes.

For Java, the default location is inside the parser class.

Directive: %code qualifier {code}

This is the qualified form of the %code directive. qualifier identifies the purpose of code and thus the location(s) where Bison should insert it. That is, if you need to specify location-sensitive code that does not belong at the default location selected by the unqualified %code form, use this form instead.

For any particular qualifier or for the unqualified form, if there are multiple occurrences of the %code directive, Bison concatenates the specified code in the order in which it appears in the grammar file.

Not all qualifiers are accepted for all target languages. Unaccepted qualifiers produce an error. Some of the accepted qualifiers are:


Though we say the insertion locations are language-dependent, they are technically skeleton-dependent. Writers of non-standard skeletons however should choose their locations consistently with the behavior of the standard Bison skeletons.

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